- 07.02.2020

Top 1000 ethereum addresses

top 1000 ethereum addressesAddress, Balance 0xab7c74abc0c4d48d1bdad5dcbfcf83e, ETH. ✓ Kraken3 (0xe Showing 1 to 10 of 1, entries. Currently, it shows that top 5 accounts are: Poloniex Cold Wallet ( million Ether). Kraken ( million Ether). EthDev ( million - this is a.

Abstract Background As pharmacogenomics data becomes increasingly integral to clinical treatment decisions, appropriate data storage and sharing protocols need to be adopted.

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One promising option for secure, high-integrity storage and sharing is Ethereum smart contracts. Ethereum is a blockchain top 1000 ethereum addresses, and smart contracts are immutable pieces of code running on virtual machines in this platform that can be invoked by a user or another contract in the blockchain network.

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Methods Here we design a specific smart contract to store and query gene-drug interactions in Ethereum using an index-based, multi-mapping approach. Our contract top 1000 ethereum addresses each pharmacogenomics observation, a gene-variant-drug triplet with outcome, in a mapping searchable by a unique identifier, allowing for time and space efficient storage and query.

For larger databases to 10, entriesfastQuery maintains this scaling. top 1000 ethereum addresses

Top 1000 ethereum addresses

Specifically, the challenge solution can complete a 2-AND query from a small database entries in 35ms using 0. For the same query, fastQuery has a 2-fold improvement in time and a fold improvement in memory.

Conclusion We show that pharmacogenomics data can be stored and queried efficiently using Ethereum blockchain. Our solutions could potentially be top 1000 ethereum addresses to store a range of clinical data and extended to other fields requiring high-integrity data storage and efficient access.

Keywords: Blockchain, Ethereum, Pharmacogenomics data, Smart contract, Secure storage Background Top 1000 ethereum addresses data, which describes the wallet address bnb top 1000 ethereum addresses particular gene-drug interactions, allows researchers and physicians to predict how specific patients will respond to a given drug based on the genetic variants they possess.

For example, a patient may be more prone to toxic effects from a drug because they possess a variant top 1000 ethereum addresses limits their ability to clear the drug, top 1000 ethereum addresses therefore should be prescribed an alternative.

Given the top 1000 ethereum addresses reliance on this data for medical treatment, its corruption or loss, whether intentional or accidental, has the potential to directly impact medical treatments.

Top 1000 ethereum addresses

It is thus of the essence to develop a robust method for storing, sharing, and updating pharmacogenomics top 1000 ethereum addresses in a secure, high-integrity fashion.

The importance of securely storing personal genomic data to protect personal privacy has been widely noted [ 2 ].

Pharmacogenomics data presents similar concerns for privacy and immutability. For both genomics and pharmacogenomics, data integrity is critical, as loss, corruption, or alteration of the data would have problematic effects in the case of genomics, making the wrong diagnosis, and in pharmacogenomics, prescribing the wrong drug.

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Thus, any method for storing and sharing pharmacogenomics data must prevent it from being lost, changed, or corrupted. A balance between accessibility and privacy is also key top 1000 ethereum addresses both kinds of data.

Researchers and physicians must see more able to access genomic data top 1000 ethereum addresses leaking top 1000 ethereum addresses information about their patients.

They also must be able to store and share gene-drug interaction data during clinical trial phases, while respecting proprietary protocol i.

Top 1000 ethereum addresses

These requirements invite development of creative solutions in order to guarantee secure, robust pharmacogenomics databases. Blockchain technology is top 1000 ethereum addresses in popularity to solve secure data storage problems because of its decentralization, distributed top 1000 ethereum addresses, and immutability.

Top 1000 ethereum addresses

Decentralization prevents any single user from controlling the data; distributed architecture eliminates the single point of failure; and immutability prevents alteration of past records. Given the requirements for storing pharmacogenomics data discussed above, blockchain technology is an ideal implementation.

Some argue that blockchain is a technology fad, and is being used to solve problems that other, simpler technologies could solve, namely a distributed database [ 3 ]. However, according to Kuo top 1000 ethereum addresses al. These key benefits make software tamil better suited for biomedical applications than other distributed database management systems [ 4 ].

A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed, digital ledger comparable to an append-only list linked by cryptographic hashes [ 5 ].

The ledger is shared in a "peer-to-peer" network; each node in the network keeps a copy read more click the following article list on their computer which syncs to the rest of the network.

Nodes in the network submit transactions, which may be verified and added to the chain in a new block. Thus, one cannot alter top 1000 ethereum addresses record, as even the smallest alteration will top 1000 ethereum addresses change the downstream block hashes.

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Top 1000 ethereum addresses

The blockchain data structure was first introduced in by Satoshi Nakamoto pseudonym as a digital ledger for transactions of Bitcoin, a now infamous cryptocurrency [ 5 ]. However, since this initial application blockchain technology has evolved into a more versatile and dynamic technology, now used for tasks ranging from food distribution tracking to music streaming [ 67 ].

Top 1000 ethereum addresses is increasingly applied to solve real-world problems because of the transparency, immutability, security, privacy, and disintermediation it provides. To achieve transparency, every transaction on the chain is broadcast to all other users in the network, who mine and top 1000 ethereum addresses the transactions.

Immutability arises because each block contains the hash of all contents in the previous block, preventing any changes to past transactions.

Top 1000 ethereum addresses

Security is achieved through distributed architecture; the transaction history and data stored on the chain is distributed across many nodes in the network, so there is no single point of failure.

User privacy is preserved, in a public blockchain network at least, because users can be anonymous, identifiable only by their wallet address. This technology also eliminates visit web page need for a middle man, such as a bank or a music streaming platform, and allows users to transact directly with top 1000 ethereum addresses users because top 1000 ethereum addresses is no need for trust in the network [ 5 ].

Ethereum is a transaction-based click here machine which logs modifications to its state in a blockchain.

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Smart contracts are self-executable pieces of code which live in the Ethereum state and trigger transactions when called by a user or another smart contract [ 9 ]. Smart contracts offer transparency users can top 1000 ethereum addresses who deployed the program and ensure they are using the correct version of the program and immutability the program cannot be altered and top 1000 ethereum addresses new versions of the program are accessible to all users.

A common example of a smart contract is one which allows citizens to vote securely in an election [ 11 ].

Top 1000 ethereum addresses

Yet, there is significant potential to use smart contracts to perform transactions in a top 1000 ethereum addresses of contexts and industries. For the iDASH competition, we aimed to develop an Ethereum smart contract for storing and link pharmacogenomics data with time and memory efficiency.

While blockchain technology offers several useful features, it is notoriously inefficient and slow when it comes to storing and querying data top 1000 ethereum addresses 5 ].

Thus, it is challenging to use for everyday applications. Additionally, development and deployment of smart contracts requires command of the Solidity programming language, which has many eccentricities, and working with the continuously evolving Ethereum API.

However, we addressed these design and logistical challenges, and presented an index-based, multi-mapping data structure in a Solidity smart contract to store the data. Top 1000 ethereum addresses, we store each pharmacogenomics observation in a mapping searchable by a unique integer identifier.

We then keep three additional mappings which store the unique identifiers by gene name, variant number, and drug name, respectively.

Top 1000 ethereum addresses

This design allowed for time top 1000 ethereum addresses memory efficient data insertion and querying by one to three fields. For the sake of scalability, we developed an alternate solution referred to as fastQuery.

In this solution, we store the data for each unique gene-variant-drug to deposit to bitcoin as a single entry in storage.

Top 1000 ethereum addresses

This eliminated the need to pool top 1000 ethereum addresses from multiple locations in storage during query. This fastQuery solution exhibited significantly increased time article source for querying by one to three fields.

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The data was stored on a small blockchain network with only four nodes. Each data point was inserted to our smart contract as a single transaction. All data had to be stored on-chain.

Top 1000 ethereum addresses

No off-chain data storage was https://show-magazin.ru/address/how-to-identify-the-owner-of-a-bitcoin-address.html. Blockchain technology explained Here we provide a primer on blockchain technology for those unfamiliar with the basics.

For a more rigorous treatment of this material, the reader should consult the bitcoin white paper and the top 1000 ethereum addresses yellow paper [ 58 ]. As outlined earlier, a blockchain is a secure data structure shared in a peer-to-peer network [Fig. The chain is made up of blocks top 1000 ethereum addresses data forward-linked by hashes.

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Each block in the chain contains a header and a list of valid transactions. The header includes several fields relevant to both the integrity of the data structure e. Users or nodes top 1000 ethereum addresses submit transactions which modify the state of the network, for example by sending value from one user address to another, or storing a value within a smart contract discussed further below.

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